examples:residential_buildings:multi-family_buildings:central_europe:the_world_s_first_passive_house_darmstadt-kranichstein_germany

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examples:residential_buildings:multi-family_buildings:central_europe:the_world_s_first_passive_house_darmstadt-kranichstein_germany [2018/06/22 10:10]
cblagojevic
examples:residential_buildings:multi-family_buildings:central_europe:the_world_s_first_passive_house_darmstadt-kranichstein_germany [2019/03/26 11:47]
cblagojevic [Design features of the Passive House in Darmstadt-Kranichstein]
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 The Research Group monitored **eight research projects**, the results of which were incorporated directly into the construction of the first Passive House at Kranichstein;​ among other things: The Research Group monitored **eight research projects**, the results of which were incorporated directly into the construction of the first Passive House at Kranichstein;​ among other things:
   * alternative architectural drafts were prepared,   * alternative architectural drafts were prepared,
 +
   * the efficiency of ventilation heat recovery units was improved,   * the efficiency of ventilation heat recovery units was improved,
 +
   * ventilation controls were developed based on air quality guidelines,   * ventilation controls were developed based on air quality guidelines,
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   * new specially insulated window frames and shutters were developed,   * new specially insulated window frames and shutters were developed,
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   * low thermal bridge construction details for the connection of building components were designed,   * low thermal bridge construction details for the connection of building components were designed,
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   * solar heating technologies and a concept for heat recovery from waste water were developed.\\   * solar heating technologies and a concept for heat recovery from waste water were developed.\\
 \\ \\
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 Besides these measures Besides these measures
   * solar collectors for the provision of domestic hot water    * solar collectors for the provision of domestic hot water 
 +
   * and a subsoil heat exchanger for preheating the fresh air were used.   * and a subsoil heat exchanger for preheating the fresh air were used.
  
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 |   ​**Exterior\\ wall** ​  | Fabric reinforced mineral render;\\ 275 mm of expanded polystyrene insulation (EPS) (installed in two layers at that time, 150+125 mm);\\ 175 mm sand-lime brick masonry;\\ 15 mm continuous interior gypsum plastering; wood-chip wallpaper, emulsion paint coating |{{:​picopen:​wdvs_daemmung_passivhaus_mit_logo.jpg?​150}}| ​ 0.14  | |   ​**Exterior\\ wall** ​  | Fabric reinforced mineral render;\\ 275 mm of expanded polystyrene insulation (EPS) (installed in two layers at that time, 150+125 mm);\\ 175 mm sand-lime brick masonry;\\ 15 mm continuous interior gypsum plastering; wood-chip wallpaper, emulsion paint coating |{{:​picopen:​wdvs_daemmung_passivhaus_mit_logo.jpg?​150}}| ​ 0.14  |
 |   ​**Basement\\ ceiling** ​  | Surface finish on fibreglass fabric;\\ 250 mm polystyrene insulation boards;\\ 160 mm concrete;\\ 40 mm polystyrene acoustic insulation;​\\ 50 mm cement floor finish;\\ 8-15 mm of parquet, adhesive;\\ sealing solvent-free |{{:​picopen:​keller_daemmung_mit_logo.jpg?​150}}| ​ 0.13  | |   ​**Basement\\ ceiling** ​  | Surface finish on fibreglass fabric;\\ 250 mm polystyrene insulation boards;\\ 160 mm concrete;\\ 40 mm polystyrene acoustic insulation;​\\ 50 mm cement floor finish;\\ 8-15 mm of parquet, adhesive;\\ sealing solvent-free |{{:​picopen:​keller_daemmung_mit_logo.jpg?​150}}| ​ 0.13  |
-|  **Windows** | Triple-pane low-e glazing with Krypton filling: U<​sub>​g</​sub>​-value 0.7 W/(m²K).\\ Wooden window with polyurethane foam insulated framework\\ (CO2-foamed,​ HCFC free, handcrafted)|{{:​picopen:​fenster_mit_logo.jpg?​150}}| ​ 0.7  |+|  **Windows** ​ | Triple-pane low-e glazing with Krypton filling: U<​sub>​g</​sub>​-value 0.7 W/(m²K).\\ Wooden window with polyurethane foam insulated framework\\ (CO2-foamed,​ HCFC free, handcrafted)|{{:​picopen:​fenster_mit_logo.jpg?​150}}| ​ 0.7  |
 |   ​**Heat\\ recovery\\ ventilation** ​  | Counterflow air-to-air heat exchanger;​\\ Located in the cellar (approx. ​ 9°C in the winter),\\ carefully sealed and thermally insulated,​\\ the first one to use electronically commutated DC fans.|{{:​picopen:​waermetauscher_mit_logo.jpg?​150}}| ​ heat recovery\\ rate approx. 80%  |\\ |   ​**Heat\\ recovery\\ ventilation** ​  | Counterflow air-to-air heat exchanger;​\\ Located in the cellar (approx. ​ 9°C in the winter),\\ carefully sealed and thermally insulated,​\\ the first one to use electronically commutated DC fans.|{{:​picopen:​waermetauscher_mit_logo.jpg?​150}}| ​ heat recovery\\ rate approx. 80%  |\\
 \\ \\
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   * The hot water is heated using solar vacuum flat collectors (5.3 m² per household or 1.4 m² per person).   * The hot water is heated using solar vacuum flat collectors (5.3 m² per household or 1.4 m² per person).
 +
   * Natural gas is used for secondary heating. The flat-collector thermal system covers about 66% of the dhw consumption in the Passive House in Darmstadt-Kranichstein.   * Natural gas is used for secondary heating. The flat-collector thermal system covers about 66% of the dhw consumption in the Passive House in Darmstadt-Kranichstein.
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   * Because the provision of domestic hot water represents the greatest energy requirement of this house, an efficient domestic hot water system is of great importance. The heat distribution and circulation pipes have therefore been placed inside the thermal envelope and are well insulated.\\   * Because the provision of domestic hot water represents the greatest energy requirement of this house, an efficient domestic hot water system is of great importance. The heat distribution and circulation pipes have therefore been placed inside the thermal envelope and are well insulated.\\
 \\ \\
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 Thus in Kranichstein a balanced supply air and exhaust air ventilation system with a highly efficient counterflow air-to-air heat exchanger was used - but it had to be specially adapted for this purpose because at the time, the fans used had a very high electricity consumption. Thus in Kranichstein a balanced supply air and exhaust air ventilation system with a highly efficient counterflow air-to-air heat exchanger was used - but it had to be specially adapted for this purpose because at the time, the fans used had a very high electricity consumption.
   * In this project, DC fans with electronic commutators were used for the first time (known as EC motors).   * In this project, DC fans with electronic commutators were used for the first time (known as EC motors).
 +
   * During operation, a heat recovery rate of over 80% was measured after optimisation of the flow geometry.\\   * During operation, a heat recovery rate of over 80% was measured after optimisation of the flow geometry.\\
 \\  \\
 This continuously operating comfort ventilation system provides a constant supply of fresh air to each accommodation unit. This continuously operating comfort ventilation system provides a constant supply of fresh air to each accommodation unit.
-  * At the lowest setting, 100 m³/h of fresh air is supplied to the living and sleeping areas in each unit. This means, that with a four person household, the specific quantity of fresh air would amount to 25 m³ per person per hour. The unit then operates constantly at this rate independent of the actual number of people in the building (for the best as shown by experiments with complex ventilation controls that were not worth it). Users can, however, manually change the setting if the choose. ​  ​+  * At the lowest setting, 100 m³/h of fresh air is supplied to the living and sleeping areas in each unit. This means, that with a four person household, the specific quantity of fresh air would amount to 25 m³ per person per hour. The unit then operates constantly at this rate independent of the actual number of people in the building (for the best as shown by experiments with complex ventilation controls that were not worth it). Users can, however, manually change the setting if the choose. ​  
 + 
   * At the highest setting, between 160 and 185 m³/h are supplied.   * At the highest setting, between 160 and 185 m³/h are supplied.
  
 Extract air is drawn away from the humid rooms like the kitchen and bathrooms in corresponding quantities. Such high-efficiency ventilation systems had not been available before the Passive House; it was only in 1997 that development by the Research Group for Cost-efficient Passive Houses was so far advanced that several manufacturers started to produce serial units of this quality for the market. Today these units typically display the following characteristics:​ Extract air is drawn away from the humid rooms like the kitchen and bathrooms in corresponding quantities. Such high-efficiency ventilation systems had not been available before the Passive House; it was only in 1997 that development by the Research Group for Cost-efficient Passive Houses was so far advanced that several manufacturers started to produce serial units of this quality for the market. Today these units typically display the following characteristics:​
   * heat recovery efficiency of more than 80%,   * heat recovery efficiency of more than 80%,
 +
   * electricity consumption of less than 0.4 Wh/m³ transferred air - see the certified units at [[http://​www.passiv.de]].   * electricity consumption of less than 0.4 Wh/m³ transferred air - see the certified units at [[http://​www.passiv.de]].
  
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   * **19.8 kWh/​(m²a)** in 1991/92, the first year of operation, which was only **8%** of the consumption in comparable ordinary homes,   * **19.8 kWh/​(m²a)** in 1991/92, the first year of operation, which was only **8%** of the consumption in comparable ordinary homes,
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   * **11.8 kWh/​(m²a)** in 1992/93, the second year of operation, this was only **5.5%** of the consumption in comparable homes   * **11.8 kWh/​(m²a)** in 1992/93, the second year of operation, this was only **5.5%** of the consumption in comparable homes
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   * less than **10 kWh/​(m²a)** on average in the following years \\   * less than **10 kWh/​(m²a)** on average in the following years \\
 \\ \\
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 But progress is not just based on quantity. Because of the **ever-increasing numbers of Passive-House-suitable components available on the market**, the quality is getting better while at the same time prices are falling. The **variety of buildings that have been realised **is also increasing: it has now become clear that the Passive House is a building standard and not a special building method. Passive Houses have been built as But progress is not just based on quantity. Because of the **ever-increasing numbers of Passive-House-suitable components available on the market**, the quality is getting better while at the same time prices are falling. The **variety of buildings that have been realised **is also increasing: it has now become clear that the Passive House is a building standard and not a special building method. Passive Houses have been built as
   * free-standing single-family homes,   * free-standing single-family homes,
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   * as terraced houses   * as terraced houses
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   * and as multi-storey buildings.   * and as multi-storey buildings.
  
examples/residential_buildings/multi-family_buildings/central_europe/the_world_s_first_passive_house_darmstadt-kranichstein_germany.txt · Last modified: 2019/03/26 11:47 by cblagojevic