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-====== ​Efficiency of household appliances and their impact on the primary energy demand ​of residential buildings ======+====== ​Renewable ​primary energy demand ​in residential buildings ​with high energy intensity ​======
  
-Once a project is designed as a Passive House, ​the energy demand ​from heating and cooling is drastically reduced. Thenthe contribution of domestic hot water generation ​and household appliances ​becomes more relevant for the total primary energy ​demand of the building. At a household level, the energy demand ​from appliances (white goods) can be the largest share [Ottinger 2017]. It is then important to look at the efficiency of household appliances and how they can contribute to reducing the total primary energy use of a building. Even more so where projects are seeking to achieve the renewable primary energy requirements for Passive House Plus and Premium.+[{{ :​picopen:​per_tool_open1.png?​nolink&​600|Figure 1. The graph shows the final energy demand ​for 5 different dwelling sizes with ventilation, domestic hot water and household appliances ​of similar characteristics. For energy uses where the demand ​varies with the number ​of occupants, the smaller ​the dwelling size, the higher the specific ​energy demand ​will be. \\ © PHI}}]
  
-===== 1 How is the energy demand ​from household appliances calculated ​in PHPP? =====+Primary energy ​is the amount of energy that must be generated originally in order to meet the total energy demand ​of a building. The conventional Primary Energy (PE) concept takes into account the fossil fuel source of energy, while the concept of Primary Energy Renewable (PER) expresses the amount of renewable energy needed, including storage losses (see more [[basics:​passive_house_-_assuring_a_sustainable_energy_supply:​passive_house_the_next_decade:​determining_application-specific_per_factors|here]]). For building certification according to the international Passive House Standard there are fixed PER demand criteria: 60 kWh/(m²a) for Classic, 45 kWh/(m²a) for Plus and 30 kWh/(m²a) for Premium. However, ​in case of special uses with high energy intensity, the [[https://​passiv.de/​downloads/​03_building_criteria_en.pdf|certification criteria]] [PHI 2016] states the possibility for exemptions where there is an efficient use of electrical energy for all significant devices and systems.
  
-[{{ :​picopen:​efficiency_of_household_appliances_1.png?​nolink&​600|Figure 1. Example ​of the calculation ​of the energy demand ​from household appliances ​in PHPP\\ © PHI}}]+For residential buildings with small dwelling units (high density) such an exemption becomes more likely The energy demand ​of uses such as ventilation,​ domestic hot water and electricity for household appliances scales with the number ​of people, and will thus result in a higher specific ​energy demand ​(kWh/​m²a) ​in a high density building. In other words, the project may exceed the given threshold simply because there are more people per treated floor area. In some cases, this may happen even if highly energy efficient appliances or equipment are installed. Figure 1 shows how the specific final energy demand varies with changing dwelling sizes.
  
-The energy ​demand ​from household appliances is determined in the “Electricity” Worksheet ​of PHPP. The annual energy demand is calculated based on the energy use of the appliances (norm demand as declared on energy efficiency labels), ​reference size, and a given frequency of useThe reference size and frequency ​of use are fixed boundary conditions, while the norm demand ​can be changed. It must be noted that for certificationstandard values ​for each appliance must be used, unless there is evidence that more efficient appliances have been installedFigure 1 includes ​the example ​of the calculation for the sample project provided in PHPP and standard values for all appliances. For a more detailed description of the methodology,​ please refer to [Ebel 1997] and the PHPP Manual.+As density increases, it may not be possible to achieve a demand ​below 60 kWh/m2a without improving ​the performance ​of the building components beyond ​the values that are usual for Passive House ClassicIn order to appropriately recognize the impact ​of density in the specific primary energy ​demand, ​a revised threshold ​for high density buildings ​is neededThis threshold can be calculated by setting specific targets per individual energy use which are based on the expected performance ​of Passive Houses
  
-The use of standard values ​for certification provides ​common framework to take into account their contribution to the overall energy performance of the building ​even if no information is readily available. That is often the case where buildings are handed over to the final user without any appliances, thus the design team has little or no influence ​on the selection of these devicesFor the cases where the design teams can select efficient appliancestheir contribution to improving the energy performance ​of the building can be represented in PHPP. The savings potential is significant,​ even in markets where the efficiency requirements ​for appliances are not as strict as the Ecodesign requirements in Europe. The next section includes an example ​of this, comparing the efficiency ​of available appliances in the German and the North American (Canada and the USA) markets.+For example, for ventilation:​ 
 +  * The required air change ​for a residential ​building ​can be determined based on the [[phi_publications:​nr.49_ventilation_concepts_for_residential_buildings|recommendations for Passive Houses]]: 30 m³/h per personrequirement for extract zones (bathrooms, kitchen) or at least an air change ​of 0.3/h. The criteria ​for certification ​of ventilation units sets a maximum electricity demand ​of 0.45 Wh/m³
  
-===== 2 Standard ​values ​in PHPP vs. declared ​energy ​efficiency ​of household appliances in different markets =====+With those two values, a limit for the final energy ​demand for ventilation ​of a given building can be set:
  
-In order to have a reference of the potential for reducing ​the primary energy demand ​through household appliances, the efficiency of readily available devices in the European and North American markets was compared to the standard values as set for PHPP 9The research included the standard appliances in the “Electricity” worksheet of PHPP (washing machine, drier, refrigerator,​ freezer, combined refrigerator and freezer, cooktops, oven and lighting devices) as well as other plug loads that in PHPP are included under the categories “Consumer electronics” and “Small appliances” (e.g.: TV, PC or Laptops, Microwave oven). For each appliance, three values for the energy use were obtained:+  * This value in turn can be multiplied by the [[basics:​passive_house_-_assuring_a_sustainable_energy_supply:​passive_house_the_next_decade:​determining_application-specific_per_factors|relevant PER factor]], ​to be converted into the equivalent renewable ​primary energy demand.
  
-  * **Typical product:** refers to the average product in the market, based on international and national reports [IEA 4E, NRCAN] and, where no market reports were available, based on reference values from online databases of efficient devices [TOPTEN EU]. In the case of European appliances, the efficiency of the average product in previous years is already above the limit that is currently allowed. For those appliances, the maximum energy use allowed by the Ecodesign requirements was used instead.+Figure 2 illustrates an example of this calculation for ventilation:
  
-  * **Good product:** refers to the best product available in early 2019 in the given market, ​for the most commonly used type and size of appliance (or closest available) [TOPTEN EU, ENERGYSTAR].+[{{ :picopen:​per_too_open2.png?​nolink&​600 |Figure 2. Example of the calculation of the Primary Energy Renewable target ​for ventilation in a building\\ © PHI}}]
  
-  * **Best available:​** refers to the energy ​use of the most efficient ​device available in early 2019 in the region, regardless ​of size or other characteristics [TOPTEN EUENERGYSTAR].+In case of Domestic Hot Water, the process would be similar, with the energy demand being determined by the fixed value for Passive Houses (25l/person*day at 60°C) and the number of occupants. Final energy ​is based on a limit for distribution losses of 100% of the useful energy if a very efficient ​heat source is used (SPF of or more). The lower the efficiency of the system for DHWthe more the distribution heat losses must be reduced. Figure 3 illustrates the calculation for the same building used in Figure 2.
  
-The calculation in PHPP references to a given size for each applianceIf the appliances were of a difference size, then the energy use declared in the label must be scaledFor example, the energy demand ​of a washing machine is calculated assuming that each person will wash a 5kg load 57 times a year. If the project includes a washing machine ​of 8kg, the person may be able to wash more than one load in the same cycle. Then, if the washing machine has an energy demand of 1.66kWh/​cycle,​ the energy demand to be entered in PHPP would be 1.66 x 5kg per load /8kg capacity = 1.04 kWh/use.+[{{ :​picopen:​per_tool_open3.png?​nolink&​600 |Figure 3Example ​of the calculation ​of the Primary Energy Renewable target for domestic hot water in a building\\ © PHI}}]
  
-In addition, the standards or codes to determine the declared ​energy ​demand of the appliances are different from region to region or country to country. It is always important to understand these differences and how the norm values are obtained to make sure that they can be used for the calculation and to make a second conversion if needed. A conversion tool for values obtained from the EnerGuide and EnergyStar labels is already available [Peel 2019].+This process is carried out for every energy ​use in the building, so that:
  
-Table 1 includes the summary of the collected ​and normalized values per appliance. It must be noted that an exhaustive search of all available products in a given market was not carried out. As such, the values presented here cannot be considered statistically significant,​ and the authors make no claims that the products definitely represent ​the best available products in the different markets.+  * The targets for cooling ​and heating demand are based on the limits for useful energy as set on the criteria.
  
-[{{ :​picopen:​energy_user_per.png?​direct&​400 |**Table 1** Energy demand ​per appliance in the different regions. \\ Cells in grey include the normalized values (for input in PHPP).}}]+  ​The targets for ventilation,​ domestic hot water, and electricity are adjusted based on the requirements ​per person already set in PHPP, thus adjusted with density.
  
-As Table 1 shows, there is not a clear tendency on whether appliances are more efficient in one region or the other. But, when looking at their contribution to the energy ​demand ​of the buildinggiven the same utilization patternappliances available in Europe result in a lower energy demand. Figure 2 includes the final energy demand from household appliances for different dwelling sizes and with the values for the different regions and efficiencies. It must be noted that the average products available in both the European and North American markets already result in a lower energy demand than the one calculated with the standard values in PHPP. Howeverthe total energy demand from the “best available” appliances in the North American market is still higher than that of the “good” appliances from Europe.+  * Other targets such as electricity ​demand ​from the elevatorequipmentlightingare based on project characteristics.
  
-[{{ :picopen:efficiency_of_household_appliances_4.png?​direct&​400|Figure 2. Resulting energy demand from household appliances available in the European and North American markets vs. the standard values in PHPP. \\ © PHI}}]+Read more about the targets set per energy use and the verification of the calculation for the revised target [[basics:passive_house_-_assuring_a_sustainable_energy_supply:project-specific_primary_energy_requirements_for_passive_house_certification|here]].
  
-These scenarios also suggest that the energy ​demand ​from household appliances can be reduced by 50% or more if the best appliances available in Europe are used. For Passive Houses in particular, this means that installing very efficient appliances is a feasible path to get the renewable primary ​energy ​demand to the Plus and Premium levels. But, even if aiming at Passive House Classic, it makes sense to look at the efficiency ​of the appliances to be installed. This is even more important in regions like North America, where the average market values may be better that the standard values in PHPP, but very inefficient appliances are still available in the market. It is therefore always advisable to select appliances that are certified by energy saving programs (e.g.: EnergyStar) to prevent this.+[{{ :​picopen:​per_tool_open4.png?​nolink&​600|Figure 4. Adjustment of the limit for the PER demand ​per energy ​use and size of the dwelling unit\\ © PHI}}]
  
-===== 3 The impact of different utilization patterns ===== +Once the targets ​for each end use are setthese can be added to obtain ​the total limit for the Primary Energy Renewable demand or the Primary Energy demand of a given projectFigure 4 shows the adjustment ​in the PER demand as the dwelling size decreasesfor location where the cooling demand ​is 15kWh/m²a.((Since ​the limit for cooling ​demand ​varies depending ​on the climate ​and project characteristics, ​the PER demand ​would also vary in a location ​with a different limit for the cooling ​demand.))
- +
-Looking at the utilization patterns and potential ​for savings at the household level is strongly recommendedespecially when the building has been designed ​for high energy efficiency. First experiences on evaluations at this level show the potential for savings is high (see more [[sinfonia:​electric_energy_efficiency_for_households_doing_the_whole_step_towards_energy_efficiency|here]]). However, ​the available information on utilization patterns per appliance in the different regions is too limited to generate user profiles per region or countryBut preliminary estimates do suggest that the average user in North America, and the USA in particular, will use more energy than the average user in Germany. Estimates also suggest that this difference may be due to consumer electronics and lighting.  +
- +
-In conclusionresults suggest that there is tendency in both the North American and European markets of improved energy efficiency in the household appliances. To take advantage of these improvements,​ it is always advisable to select appliances that are certified by energy saving programsIt is worth mentioning that the calculation of the Internal Heat Gains for residential buildings already takes into account this improvement,​ guaranteeing that the very low heating ​demand ​achieved through Passive House is maintained even as older appliances are replaced by more efficient ones (see more [[planning:​calculating_energy_efficiency:​phpp_-_the_passive_house_planning_package:​internal_heat_gains_in_relation_to_living_area|here]]). A sensitivity analysis for increased IHG is in any case recommended to check their impact ​on the months where cooling is needed. This is particularly recommended if the use of inefficient appliances can be expected ​and even more so in small dwellings. In terms of the primary energy ​demand ​of the building, the calculation ​with standard values for household has proven sufficient ​for the design of a high quality building. Still, the use of efficient appliances results in a significant reduction of the total energy ​demand ​and should not be overlooked when selecting these devices. +
- +
-===== References ===== +
- +
-|Ottinger 2017|O. Ottinger; F. Gressier; M. Hohm; S, Peper: **Electric Energy Efficiency for Households: The next step towards the NZEB**, Tagungsband 21. Internationale Passivhaus-Tagung,​ Passivhaus Institut Darmstadt, 2017| +
-|Ebel 1997|Ebel, Witta: Methods of calculating electricity consumption in Passive Houses, Protokollband Nr. 7, Saving Electricity in Passive Houses, Passivhaus Institut Darmstadt, 1997.| +
-|Ecodesign|European Commission. List of energy efficient products Regulations:​ by product group. Retrieved from: [[https://​ec.europa.eu/​energy/​en/​list-regulations-product-groups-energy-efficient-products|https://​ec.europa.eu/​energy/​en/​list-regulations-product-groups-energy-efficient-products]]| +
-|IEA 4E|International Energy Agency. Mapping and Benchmarking Reports. Energy Efficient End-use Equipment. Retrieved from: [[https://​mappingandbenchmarking.iea-4e.org/​matrix?​type=productreports|https://​mappingandbenchmarking.iea-4e.org/​matrix?​type=productreports]]| +
-|NRCAN|Natural Resources Canada. Energy Consumption of Major Household Appliances Shipped in Canada, Trends for 1990-2016. National Energy Use Database. Retrieved from: [[http://​oee.nrcan.gc.ca/​publications/​statistics/​aham/​2016/​index.cfm|http://​oee.nrcan.gc.ca/​publications/​statistics/​aham/​2016/​index.cfm]]| +
-|TOPTEN EU|Topten International Group 2018. Topten-EU, Best Products of Europe. Retrieved from: [[http://​www.topten.eu/​english/​services/​about_topten.html|http://​www.topten.eu/​english/​services/​about_topten.html]]| +
-|ENERGYSTAR|EPA. ENERGYSTAR Key Product Criteria. Retrieved from: [[https://​www.energystar.gov/​products|https://​www.energystar.gov/​products]]| +
-|Peel 2019|Peel Passive House Consulting, A Comparison of Canadian and European Energy Standards for Household Appliances. May 2019. Retrieved from:  [[http://​www.peelpassivehouse.ca/​resources.html|http://​www.peelpassivehouse.ca/​resources.html]]|+
  
 +This methodology to calculate an exemption to the criteria for the PE/PER demand has been implemented in a tool that can be linked to a PHPP (version 9.6 or newer) and can be used for residential projects. Projects seeking certification can use the original limits as set out in the Passive House criteria or the revised limit as calculated with the tool. The tool was released on September of 2019 for its implementation on a pilot phase. Projects seeking an exemption to the criteria for PE/PER demand must be reviewed by an [[https://​passivehouse.com/​03_certification/​02_certification_buildings/​03_certifiers/​01_accredited/​01_accredited.html|accredited Building Certifier]] to obtain a revised limit for the PE/PER demand.
  
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- 
 This article was developed in the framework of the “Project-specific PER” project. This project was administered by the Zero Emissions Building Exchange with funding from the City of Vancouver, Natural Resources Canada and the BC Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources. This article was developed in the framework of the “Project-specific PER” project. This project was administered by the Zero Emissions Building Exchange with funding from the City of Vancouver, Natural Resources Canada and the BC Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources.
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basics/primary_energy_renewable.txt · Last modified: 2020/05/24 21:24 by alang