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basics:passive_house_-_assuring_a_sustainable_energy_supply:passive_house_the_next_decade [2015/03/27 18:11]
jbreitfeld
basics:passive_house_-_assuring_a_sustainable_energy_supply:passive_house_the_next_decade [2019/02/28 09:56] (current)
cblagojevic [Focus – basis of efficiency criteria]
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   * A **short and mid-term grid storage structure** consisting of conventional storage devices throughout the grid with low conversion losses (2 to 35 percent) and more than 60 storage cycles per year. Some options include pumped storage plants, other mechanical storage systems, and batteries. The applications themselves also have storage capacities, like hot water tanks and heat capacity in buildings (a temperature difference of 1 K is considered acceptable and results in storage losses of about ten percent). A quick calculation shows that all of these systems are far from suitable for long-term storage (less than five cycles per year), even if costs drop significantly ​ (see [[basics:​passive_house_-_assuring_a_sustainable_energy_supply:​passive_house_the_next_decade#​references|[Feist 2013b]]]). \\   * A **short and mid-term grid storage structure** consisting of conventional storage devices throughout the grid with low conversion losses (2 to 35 percent) and more than 60 storage cycles per year. Some options include pumped storage plants, other mechanical storage systems, and batteries. The applications themselves also have storage capacities, like hot water tanks and heat capacity in buildings (a temperature difference of 1 K is considered acceptable and results in storage losses of about ten percent). A quick calculation shows that all of these systems are far from suitable for long-term storage (less than five cycles per year), even if costs drop significantly ​ (see [[basics:​passive_house_-_assuring_a_sustainable_energy_supply:​passive_house_the_next_decade#​references|[Feist 2013b]]]). \\
  
-  * **Seasonal / long-term storage.** Exergetic storage systems are not available because of high costs and low energy density. Instead, converting energy into easily stored fuels is a good solution – for example, water electrolysis and hydrogen production, potentially as intermediate storage (conversion utilisation rate of up to 63 percent), or conversion into synthetic methane (3 H<​sub>​2</​sub>​ + CO<​sub>​2</​sub>​ → CH<​sub>​4</​sub>​ + 2 H<​sub>​2</​sub>​O),​ also called P2G (conversion efficiency rate of up to 57 percent) [[basics:​passive_house_-_assuring_a_sustainable_energy_supply:​passive_house_the_next_decade#​references|[Nitsch 2012]]],​ [[basics:​passive_house_-_assuring_a_sustainable_energy_supply:​passive_house_the_next_decade#​references|[Welter 2012]]]. The methane is stored in subsoil storage tanks with almost no losses, resulting in an expenditure factor of 1.75 kWh/​kWh for private use of renewable methane. In an optimal situation, a 53-percent reconversion utilisation rate in a combined-cycle power plant can lead to an overall utilisation rate of about 33 percent; once the conversion sector'​s own consumption and distribution losses are included, the overall utilisation rate of seasonal storage for private users' electricity amounts to about 30 percent. Conversion losses create a greater demand for primary electricity,​ which must be generated from renewable sources. The increase in demands becomes greater as the seasonal correlation between energy applications'​ power demand and the primary generation structure worsens, in turn increasing the amount of space required for renewable energy generators (see Section [[basics:​passive_house_-_assuring_a_sustainable_energy_supply:​methodology|]]). \\+  * **Seasonal / long-term storage.** Exergetic storage systems are not available because of high costs and low energy density. Instead, converting energy into easily stored fuels is a good solution – for example, water electrolysis and hydrogen production, potentially as intermediate storage (conversion utilisation rate of up to 63 percent), or conversion into synthetic methane (3 H<​sub>​2</​sub>​ + CO<​sub>​2</​sub>​ → CH<​sub>​4</​sub>​ + 2 H<​sub>​2</​sub>​O),​ also called P2G (conversion efficiency rate of up to 57 percent) [[basics:​passive_house_-_assuring_a_sustainable_energy_supply:​passive_house_the_next_decade#​references|[Nitsch 2012]]],​ [[basics:​passive_house_-_assuring_a_sustainable_energy_supply:​passive_house_the_next_decade#​references|[Welter 2012]]]. The methane is stored in subsoil storage tanks with almost no losses, resulting in an expenditure factor of 1.75 kWh/​kWh for private use of renewable methane. In an optimal situation, a 53-percent reconversion utilisation rate in a combined-cycle power plant can lead to an overall utilisation rate of about 33 percent; once the conversion sector'​s own consumption and distribution losses are included, the overall utilisation rate of seasonal storage for private users' electricity amounts to about 30 percent. Conversion losses create a greater demand for primary electricity,​ which must be generated from renewable sources. The increase in demands becomes greater as the seasonal correlation between energy applications'​ power demand and the primary generation structure worsens, in turn increasing the amount of space required for renewable energy generators (see Section [[basics:​passive_house_-_assuring_a_sustainable_energy_supply:​passive_house_the_next_decade:​methodology]]). \\
  
   * The second issue in point 3 (low power density) results from the resources – in this case, the amount of space – that renewable structures require. These resource requirements are fundamentally different from those of fossil energy, where resource consumption is irreversible (hydrocarbon consumed) and product disposal leads to permanent pollution (CO<​sub>​2</​sub>​ in the atmosphere causes climate change; in the water, acidification). Renewables'​ resource requirements,​ on the other hand, are of a more aesthetic nature, with turbines easily seen throughout the landscape and PV arrays taking up large areas. It is important that PV arrays be installed on spaces already being used in some way, such as building roofs, façades, traffic routes and their boundary areas, etc. One problem related to space issues is of a social/​economic nature. Land is already the most expensive natural resource, largely because there is already quite a bit of competition for using it and because it will be considered even more valuable in the future as the global population continues to grow – along with resource requirements. One way to measure the utilisation rate of renewable resources is by looking at overall primary electricity required (in kWh, power from wind, hydro, and PV systems). In this paper, this value will be referred to as //renewable primary energy//, or PER. PER is an ideal standard for assessing a structure'​s sustainability. To get an even clearer idea, PER can also be converted (with a generalized method) into regionally required //​equivalent PV generation area//; at this time, an overall PV utilisation rate of ten percent (including line and conversion losses, shading, and dirty areas) can be assumed. An average of 1,​000 kWh/​m² of global insolation can be used for central Europe, which means that each 1 MWh requires an equivalent PV generation area of about 10 m². \\ \\   * The second issue in point 3 (low power density) results from the resources – in this case, the amount of space – that renewable structures require. These resource requirements are fundamentally different from those of fossil energy, where resource consumption is irreversible (hydrocarbon consumed) and product disposal leads to permanent pollution (CO<​sub>​2</​sub>​ in the atmosphere causes climate change; in the water, acidification). Renewables'​ resource requirements,​ on the other hand, are of a more aesthetic nature, with turbines easily seen throughout the landscape and PV arrays taking up large areas. It is important that PV arrays be installed on spaces already being used in some way, such as building roofs, façades, traffic routes and their boundary areas, etc. One problem related to space issues is of a social/​economic nature. Land is already the most expensive natural resource, largely because there is already quite a bit of competition for using it and because it will be considered even more valuable in the future as the global population continues to grow – along with resource requirements. One way to measure the utilisation rate of renewable resources is by looking at overall primary electricity required (in kWh, power from wind, hydro, and PV systems). In this paper, this value will be referred to as //renewable primary energy//, or PER. PER is an ideal standard for assessing a structure'​s sustainability. To get an even clearer idea, PER can also be converted (with a generalized method) into regionally required //​equivalent PV generation area//; at this time, an overall PV utilisation rate of ten percent (including line and conversion losses, shading, and dirty areas) can be assumed. An average of 1,​000 kWh/​m² of global insolation can be used for central Europe, which means that each 1 MWh requires an equivalent PV generation area of about 10 m². \\ \\
basics/passive_house_-_assuring_a_sustainable_energy_supply/passive_house_the_next_decade.txt · Last modified: 2019/02/28 09:56 by cblagojevic